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   2014| July-September  | Volume 9 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 11, 2014

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Early experience in endoscopic management of massive intraventricular hemorrhage with literature review
Zamzuri Idris, Jason Raj, Jafri Malin Abdullah
July-September 2014, 9(3):124-129
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142731  PMID:25685202
Massive intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is nearly always associated with hydrocephalus and is often treated with prolonged external ventricular drainage (EVD); however this procedure can lead to bacterial ventriculitis and meningitis, which can worsen the clinical outcomes. Endoscopic burr hole surgery to remove the hematomas in lateral and third ventricles is an alternative treatment option. We describe the surgical techniques and benefits of endoscopic surgery for acute massive IVH in four patients and discuss the current published literature-related to this condition. Four patients were treated endoscopically for massive IVH. Three patients presented with secondary IVH due to vascular malformation, tumoral bleed and chronic hypertension, while one case presented as massive primary IVH. Endoscopic wash out and removal of hematomas was normally performed together with an endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Recombinant factor VIIa was only administered prior to surgery for IVH secondary to vascular malformation and for cases with postoperative rebleeding which required second endoscopic surgery. Weaning from ventilator and EVD commenced on day 4 postoperatively. All treated patients recovered and did not require further shunt surgery. Good outcomes obtained may be related to early removal of hematomas, creation of new cerebrospinal fluid diversion pathway after thorough wash-out, early weaning from ventilator and EVD. Endoscopic surgery is beneficial in treating poor grade IVH with Graeb score of more than 6.
  4,306 734 8
Better Glasgow outcome score, cerebral perfusion pressure and focal brain oxygenation in severely traumatized brain following direct regional brain hypothermia therapy: A prospective randomized study
Zamzuri Idris, Mohd Sofan Zenian, Mustapha Muzaimi, Wan Zuraida Wan Abdul Hamid
July-September 2014, 9(3):115-123
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142690  PMID:25685201
Background: Induced hypothermia for treatment of traumatic brain injury is controversial. Since many pathways involved in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury are temperature dependent, regional brain hypothermia is thought capable to mitigate those processes. The objectives of this study are to assess the therapeutic effects and complications of regional brain cooling in severe head injury with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 6-7. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled pilot study involving patients with severe traumatic brain injury with GCS 6 and 7 who required decompressive craniectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups: Cooling and no cooling. For the cooling group, analysis was made by dividing the group into mild and deep cooling. Brain was cooled by irrigating the brain continuously with cold Hartmann solution for 24-48 h. Main outcome assessments were a dichotomized Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at 6 months posttrauma. Results: A total of 32 patients were recruited. The cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling. There were 63.2% of patients in cooling group attained good GOS at 6 months compared to only 15.4% in noncooling group (P = 0.007). Interestingly, the analysis at 6 months post-trauma disclosed mild-cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling (70% vs. 15.4% attained good GOS, P = 0.013) and apparently, the deep-cooling-treated patients failed to be better than either no cooling (P = 0.074) or mild cooling group (P = 0.650). Conclusion: Data from this pilot study imply direct regional brain hypothermia appears safe, feasible and maybe beneficial in treating severely head-injured patients.
  3,517 593 12
The impact of immunohistochemical markers of Ki-67 and p53 on the long-term outcome of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: A cohort study
Maysam Alimohamadi, Vahid Ownagh, Leila Mahouzi, Afshin Ostovar, Kazem Abbassioun, Abbas Amirjmshidi
July-September 2014, 9(3):130-136
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142732  PMID:25685203
Background and Objectives: The tumoral biomarkers have a rather well known effect upon the tumor control period of several types of malignant lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers of Ki-67 and p53 on the long-term outcome of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas treated surgically. Materials and Methods: We conducted and followed a cohort of 47 consecutive patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas referred to our department during a 4 year period for trans-sphenoidal microsurgical adenomectomy. The expression levels of Ki-67 and p53 were determined by IHC study of the tissue samples. Periodical pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual field studies and hormonal evaluations (GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1]) performed during the follow-up period were the outcome measures. Results: The level of Ki-67 expression was higher among patients with postoperative residual tumor (3.5 vs. 1.7%) and those with a hormonal recurrence (4.3 vs. 1.6%). The p53 expression level was remarkably higher in patients with radiological recurrence (18 vs. 6.3%). Patients with invasive features (i.e. cavernous sinus and suprasellar invasion) had significantly higher p53 and Ki-67 values and higher IGF-1 levels during the follow-up period. The patients younger than 30 years of age and those with mixed GH-prolactin secreting adenomas had significantly higher hormonal remission and lower radiological recurrence rates. Conclusion: Each of the biomarkers, Ki-67 and p53, along with patient's age and mixed GH-prolactin secretion showed a kind of correlation with each of aspects of the clinical, hormonal and radiologic outcome of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas in this series.
  2,921 531 12
A decade after International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial: Coiling as a first choice treatment in the management of intracranial aneurysms - Technical feasibility and early management outcomes
Gaurav Goel, Vipul Gupta, Swati Chinchure, Aditya Gupta, Gurmeen Kaur, Ajaya N Jha
July-September 2014, 9(3):137-143
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142733  PMID:25685204
Purpose: The technique of coiling has evolved in the last decade with evolution in both equipment and material. The preferable treatment of intracranial aneurysms at our center is endovascular coiling. We discuss the technical and management outcomes of consecutive patients treated with this approach and compare our results with a decade old International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 and November 2011, a total of 324 aneurysms in 304 consecutive patients were treated. Endovascular treatment was done in 308 aneurysms (95.0%) in 288 patients while 16 patients (5%) underwent surgical clipping. Of the 308 aneurysms treated endovascularly, 269 (87.3%) were ruptured, and 39 (12.7%) were unruptured aneurysms. Results: The endovascular coiling was feasible in all (99.6%) but 1 case. The immediate postoperative occlusion status was complete occlusion in 240 aneurysms (77.9%), neck remnant in 57 aneurysms (18.5%), and aneurysm remnant in 11 aneurysms (3.6%). Technical issues - with or without clinical effect-were encountered in 20 patients (6.9%). They included 18 thromboembolic events (6.2%) and intraprocedural aneurysmal rupture in 2 cases (0.7%). In "good grade" patients, H and H grade 1-3, a good outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS] 0-2) was in 87.6% patients while the bad outcome (mRS 3-5) was in 10.2% patients and mortality of 2.2%. In "bad grade" patients, H and H grade 3-5, a good outcome was in 29.2%, and bad outcome was in 41.7% patients with mortality was 29.1%. In the unruptured aneurysm group, the good outcome was seen in 97.7% and bad outcome in 2.3% with no mortality. Conclusions: In the current era, the favorable results of coiling demonstrated in previous studies may be applicable to the larger proportion of patients. In our series of consecutively treated patients using latest advances, such as three-dimensional imaging and the interventional material, endovascular management as first choice was feasible in 95% of patients with good technical and management outcomes.
  2,841 525 1
Spontaneous chronic subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cyst in children and young adults
Rajendra Shrestha, Chao You
July-September 2014, 9(3):168-172
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142739  PMID:25685210
Arachnoid cysts are clear, colorless fluid-filled cysts that arise during brain and skull development from the splitting of the arachnoid membrane. Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is an encapsulated collection of old blood, mostly or totally liquefied and located between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater. Trauma is an important factor in the development of CSDH. Here, we report four patients, previously asymptomatic, revealing CSDH with AC on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. All patients underwent craniotomy with evacuation of hematoma and resection of the cystic membrane that was then connected to the basal cistern under the operating microscope. Postoperatively, all patients were symptom-free. Presentation of an AC with chronic subdural hematoma in the absence of preceding head trauma is considered to be rare in children and young adults.
  2,668 434 13
Cervical puncture and perimedullary cistern shunt placement for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: An alternative to lumbar cistern or cerebral ventricular catheter placement a report of two cases
Jeremiah N Johnson, Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Christian B Theodotou, Ramsey Ashour, Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan
July-September 2014, 9(3):153-157
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142735  PMID:25685206
Objective: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of an identifiable cause, and if untreated, can result in permanent vision loss. In symptomatic IIH patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion can lower ICP and protect vision; however, currently used CSF diversion systems are prone to malfunction in this population. Materials and Methods: In two IIH patients with histories of numerous prior shunt revisions that presented with proximal ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction, ICP reduction was achieved by an alternative surgical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion technique: Fluoroscopically guided, percutaneous placement of a catheter in the premedullary cistern and subsequent connection to the valve and distal shunt system. Results: Postoperatively, both patients' papilledema resolved, headaches improved, and the shunts were working well at 3-month follow-up. At 1-year follow-up, one patient was well without papilledema or symptom recurrence, and the second patient had the shunt system removed by an outside surgeon. Conclusion: This technique may hold promise as an alternative shunting strategy in IIH patients with numerous proximal shunt failures or who are poor candidates for ventricular and lumbar shunts.
  2,830 268 1
Neural oscillation, network, eloquent cortex and epileptogenic zone revealed by magnetoencephalography and awake craniotomy
Zamzuri Idris, Regunath Kandasamy, Faruque Reza, Jafri M Abdullah
July-September 2014, 9(3):144-152
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142734  PMID:25685205
Background: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a method of functional neuroimaging. The concomitant use of MEG and electrocorticography has been found to be useful in elucidating neural oscillation and network, and to localize epileptogenic zone and functional cortex. We describe our early experience using MEG in neurosurgical patients, emphasizing on its impact on patient management as well as the enrichment of our knowledge in neurosciences. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 subjects were included; five patients had intraaxial tumors, one with an extraaxial tumor and brain compression, two with arteriovenous malformations, one with cerebral peduncle hemorrhage and one with sensorimotor cortical dysplasia. All patients underwent evoked and spontaneous MEG recordings. MEG data was processed at band-pass filtering frequency of between 0.1 and 300 Hz with a sampling rate of 1 kHz. MEG source localization was performed using either overdetermined equivalent current dipoles or underdetermined inversed solution. Neuromag collection of events software was used to study brain network and epileptogenic zone. The studied data were analyzed for neural oscillation in three patients; brain network and clinical manifestation in five patients; and for the location of epileptogenic zone and eloquent cortex in two patients. Results: We elucidated neural oscillation in three patients. One demonstrated oscillatory phenomenon on stimulation of the motor-cortex during awake surgery, and two had improvement in neural oscillatory parameters after surgery. Brain networks corresponding to clinico-anatomical relationships were depicted in five patients, and two networks were illustrated here. Finally, we demonstrated epilepsy cases in which MEG data was found to be useful in localizing the epileptogenic zones and functional cortices. Conclusion: The application of MEG while enhancing our knowledge in neurosciences also has a useful role in epilepsy and awake surgery.
  2,624 374 -
A giant occipital encephalocele with spontaneous hemorrhage into the sac: A rare case report
HD Nath, AK Mahapatra, SA Borkar
July-September 2014, 9(3):158-160
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142736  PMID:25685207
In giant encephalocele, head size is smaller than the encelphalocele. Occipital encephalocele is the commonest of all encephalocele. In our case, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with old hemorrhage in the sac. This was a unique presentation. In world literature, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with hemorrhage.
  2,751 230 3
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage: Report of 2 cases and review of literature
Kuntal Kanti Das, Prakash Nair, Anant Mehrotra, Jayesh Sardhara, RN Sahu, AK Jaiswal, Raj Kumar
July-September 2014, 9(3):161-164
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142737  PMID:25685208
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is an extremely rare and potentially devastating complication of supratentorial and spinal surgeries. While there are numerous postulates explaining the patho-physiology behind this phenomenon, including the most popular CSF over drainage theory, the exact cause for the same is still largely unknown. In this report, we present 2 cases of remote cerebellar hemorrhage encountered following 2 different surgical procedures. One patient had preceding pterional craniotomy for ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm while the other one developed RCH after placement of EVD. Both of them had history of poorly controlled hypertension, contrary to most reports where hypertension has not been found to be commonly associated with it. Moreover, while most cases have been reported to occur following supratentorial craniotomies and spinal surgeries, one of our patients developed the same after placement of the EVD, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported earlier.
  2,469 354 2
A extremely rare case of cervical intramedullary granuloma due to Brucella accompanied by Chiari Type-1 malformation
Kadir Tufan, Fatih Aydemir, Feyzi Birol Sarica, Ebru Kursun, Özgür Kardes, Melih Cekinmez, Hakan Caner
July-September 2014, 9(3):173-176
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142740  PMID:25685211
Chiari Type-1 malformation is displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the cervical spine and usually does not exceed the level of C2. It is 50-70% associated with syringomyelia. Nervous system involvement due to brucellosis is called neurobrucellosis, and neurological involvement rate has been reported an average of 3-5%, ranging between 3% and 25% at different series. Intramedullary abscess or granuloma due to Brucella is extremely rare. Hence far, six cases have been reported in the literature and only two of these cases were reported as intramedullary granuloma. This case is presented in order to remind the importance of the cervical cord granuloma which was presented once before in the literature and to emphasize the importance of evaluation of patient history, clinical and radiological findings together in the evaluation of a patient.
  2,189 281 -
Chronic subdural hematoma associated with moyamoya disease
Satoru Takeuchi, Hiroshi Nawashiro, Yoichi Uozumi, Naoki Otani, Hideo Osada, Kojiro Wada, Katsuji Shima
July-September 2014, 9(3):165-167
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.142738  PMID:25685209
Chronic subdural hematomas (SDHs) associated with non-operated moyamoya disease are extremely rare. A 68-year-old woman underwent burr-hole surgery for a right SDH, which resolved completely. On day 3, however, the patient suffered cerebral infarction in the right parietal lobe. Cerebral angiography demonstrated total occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries with transdural anastomoses via branches of the right occipital artery and middle meningeal artery, feeding the left parietal cortex. A branch of the right middle meningeal artery passed near the burr hole, but was preserved. The patient was diagnosed of moyamoya disease. We thought that the main cause of chronic SDH might be the disruption of transdural anastomoses. Furthermore, we also hypothesized that we might have coagulated the small vessels of the transdural anastomoses which were undetectable by postoperative angiography, and that cerebral infarction might occur.
  2,028 290 2